Nepal has a population of more than 26 million people, made up of over 40 different races and tribes. The country offers such diversity that the visitor may experience any lifestyle from the stone age, in far west and high hills, to the jet age of Kathmandu.Roughly the majority of the peoples are the Indo-Aryans and the remainder is of Mongoloid origin. The peoples in the Himalayan are called Tibeto-Mongoloid by races and Tibeto-Buddhist by religion. They speak Tibetan language and their own dialects. Their life is based on the Trans- Himalayan trade and Cis- Himalayan trade. It was believed that the people called the Sherpas of the North East Nepal were the migrants of the eastern Tibet. They live under different diverse geographic and environmental orientations, from the low plains near the Indian border, northward through the middle hills of Mahabharat range and valleys, and up to the high plain valleys of the Himalayan zone.
The midlands are inhabited by various Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan speaking hill and valley people. In the mid hill mostly settled Brahmins, Chettris, and Newars. While the Brahmins and Chettris are widely distributed throughout the country, the Newars are mainly concentrated in the Katmandu Valley and other towns.The Rais, Limbus, Tamangs, Magars, Sunwars, Jirels, Gurungs, Thakalis, and Chepangs are other Tibeto-Burman speaking Mongoloid people found living in the middle hills. Each have their own distinct social and cultural patterns.
In Lower Terai are inhabited by people such as the Brahmins, Rajputs, Tharus, Danwars, Majhis, Darais, Rajbansis, Statars, Dhimals and Dhangars. Though Nepal is a veritable mosaic of dozens of ethnic groups, they are bound together by their loyalty to the institution of monarchy, and by the ideas of peaceful coexistence and religious tolerance to form one unified nation. Terai’s Mithila groups are popular for their authentic traditional arts and paintings. But however mostly either living in hilly region or Terai region their major occupation is traditional agriculture broadly adopted. It is also Called Dun valleys.
Himalayan region settlements of Tibetan-speaking groups Sherpa, Tibetan origin Gurung of Manang, Mustang and Dolpo region and Thakali of Mustang’s high plain are found in sub alpine to trans Himalayan areas.The best known of the high mountain people are the Sherpas who inhabit the central and eastern regions of Nepal. The Sherpas have easy access to Bhot (Tibet) for trade and social intercourse and therefore Tibetan influence on their culture and civilization remains distinct. The high Himalayan settlements of Tibetan speaking people are found perched precariously on mountain ledges and slopes. Life here is delicate balance of hard work and social merrymaking, tempered by a culture deeply steeped in ancient religious traditions.
People in Nepal commonly welcome you Namaste as a traditional salute (means I salute the divine in you) which is widely used in the most part of country. In general mostly Nepalese people are involved in their traditional occupation agriculture. Their belief in the caste system divided the people by their social class, and many are happy to see this system fading. Mostly each ethnic group has their own unique costumes, speak their own languages or dialects their plight, however, varies from one ethnic group to another. Among Tibeto-Nepalese community’s female status is relatively better than in Indo-Nepalese communities.
Generally, women work harder and longer than men, taking care of household chores, fetching water and animal fodder, and farming. Women in upper-class families, however, have maids who do household work. Social life in the village revolves around the family, which is headed by the father. Extended families sometimes break apart as sons separate from parents and brothers from each other in search of additional land.